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Satellite Forest Information for Canada

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The NFIS high resolution forest change for Canada map page is fully interactive. You can zoom in, zoom out, and pan around the map by clicking on it and dragging. The controls for zooming in and out are on the top left of the map.

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Some locations on the Map hold information on Canada's forest change. To view this information, simply click on the map and the information will be displayed below, if available.

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The forest data included in this product is national in scope (entire forested ecosystem) and represents the first wall-to-wall characterization of wildfire and harvest in Canada at a spatial resolution commensurate with human impacts. The information outcomes represent > 30 years of stand replacing change in Canada's forests, derived from a single, consistent spatially-explicit data source, derived in a fully automated manner. This demonstrated capacity to characterize forests at a resolution that captures human impacts is key to establishing a baseline for detailed monitoring of forested ecosystems from management and science perspectives. Time series of Landsat data were used to characterize national trends in stand replacing forest disturbances caused by wildfire and harvest for the period 1985-2011 and 2012-2015 for Canada's 650 million hectare forested ecosystems (White et al. 2017).
Landsat data has a 30m spatial resolution, so the change information is highly detailed and is commensurate with that of human impacts. These data represent annual stand replacing forest changes. The stand replacing disturbances types labeled are wildfire and harvest, with lower confidence wildfire and harvest, also shared. The distinction and sharing of lower class membership likelihoods is to indicate to users that some change events were more difficult to allocate to a change type, but are generally found to be in the correct category. For an overview on the data, image processing, and time series change detection methods applied, as well as information on independent accuracy assessment of the data, see Hermosilla et al. (2016)). The change data sets for 1985-2011 and 2012-2015 are available as, 1. a binary change/no-change; 2. Change year; and, 3. Change type.

World Imagery (background graphic) provided by ESRI Web services with sources from Esri, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus DS, USDA, USGS, AeroGRID, IGN and the GIS User Community

The science and methods developed to generate the information outcomes shown here, that track and characterize the history of Canada’s forests, were led by Canadian Forest Service of Natural Resources Canada, partnered with the University of British Columbia, with support from the Canadian Space Agency, augmented by processing capacity from WestGrid of Compute Canada.

Download the data here:

Data Set Description Download Link
Wildfire Year/dNBR/Mask 1985-2015 Wildfire change magnitude 85-15. Spectral change magnitude for wildfires that occurred from 1985 and 2015. The wildfire change magnitude included in this product is expressed via differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR), computed as the variation between the spectral values before and after the change event. This dataset is composed of three layers: (1) binary wildfire mask, (2) year of greatest wildfire disturbance, and (3) differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) transformed for data storage efficiency to the range 0-200. The actual dNBR value is derived as follows: dNBR = value / 100. Higher dNBR values are related to higher burn severity. The information outcomes represent 30 years of wildfires in Canada's forests, derived from a single, consistent spatially-explicit data source in a fully automated manner. Time series of Landsat data with 30-m spatial resolution were used to characterize national trends in stand replacing forest disturbances caused by wildfire for the period 1985-2015 for Canada's 650 million hectare forested ecosystems.
When using this data, please cite as: Hermosilla, T., M.A. Wulder, J.C. White, N.C. Coops, G.W. Hobart, L.B. Campbell, 2016. Mass data processing of time series Landsat imagery: pixels to data products for forest monitoring. International Journal of Digital Earth 9(11), 1035-1054. (Hermosilla et al. 2016).
See references below for an overview on the data processing, metric calculation, change attribution and time series change detection methods applied, as well as information on independent accuracy assessment of the data.
Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M. A., White, J. C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., 2015. An integrated Landsat time series protocol for change detection and generation of annual gap-free surface reflectance composites. Remote Sensing of Environment 158, 220-234. (Hermosilla et al. 2015a).
Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., 2015. Regional detection, characterization, and attribution of annual forest change from 1984 to 2012 using Landsat-derived time-series metrics. Remote Sensing of Environment 170, 121-132. (Hermosilla et al. 2015b).
Hermosilla, T., M.A. Wulder, J.C. White, N.C. Coops, G. W. Hobart, (2017). Updating Landsat time series of surface-reflectance composites and forest change products with new observations. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 63,104-111.. ( Hermosilla et al. 2017).
Wildfire Year/dNBR/Mask 1985-2015 (GeoTif, 1.2GB),
Harvest Year/Mask 1985-2015 Annual mapping of national level forest harvesting for Canada detected inclusive of 1985 to 2015 from Landsat satellite imagery.
This dataset is composed of two layers: (1) binary harvest mask, and (2) year of harvest disturbance detection. The information outcomes represent 31 years of harvesting activity in Canada’s forests, derived from a single, consistent, spatially-explicit data source in an automated manner. Time series of Landsat data with 30-m spatial resolution were used to characterize national trends in stand replacing forest disturbances, including those attributed to harvest for the period 1985–2015 for Canada's 650 million hectare forested ecosystems (Hermosilla et al. 2016). See references below for an overview regarding the data, image processing, and time-series change detection methods applied, as well as information on independent accuracy assessment of the data. When using this data, please cite as: Hermosilla, T., M.A. Wulder, J.C. White, N.C. Coops, G.W. Hobart, L.B. Campbell, (2016). Mass data processing of time series Landsat imagery: pixels to data products for forest monitoring. International Journal of Digital Earth. 9(11), 1035-1054. ( Hermosilla et al. 2016) For additional resources on the data used and methods applied, please see: Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M. A., White, J. C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., (2015). An integrated Landsat time series protocol for change detection and generation of annual gap-free surface reflectance composites. Remote Sensing of Environment 158, 220-234. ( Hermosilla et al. 2015a) Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., (2015). Regional detection, characterization, and attribution of annual forest change from 1984 to 2012 using Landsat-derived time-series metrics. Remote Sensing of Environment 170, 121-132. ( Hermosilla et al. 2015b) Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., 2017. Updating Landsat time series of surface-reflectance composites and forest change products with new observations. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 63, 104-111.( Hermosilla et al. 2017)
Harvest Year/Mask 1985-2015 (GeoTif, 351 MB),
Canada RGB 2015 High-resolution RGB Landsat image composite of Canada (2015). This national image product represents the Composite to Change (C2C) proxy composite image derived from thousands of Landsat images acquired between July 1 and August 30, 2015. The overall process followed is described in (Hermosilla et al. 2017). with the details regarding the generation of gap-free surface reflectance composites found in ( Hermosilla et al. 2015) Following the motivation and rationale presented in White et al. (2014), Landsat imagery is subject to a series of processing stages to remove cloud and shadow as well as haze and other unwanted atmospheric effects. Year-on-year time series of Landsat imagery is interrogated to avoid having locations with missing values to ensure exhaustive spatial coverage of the national surface reflectance composites. False colour 3 Channel RBG image (Landsat-8 Bands 6-5-4; Landsat 7, Bands 5-4-3 ).Cubic Convolution (CC) resampling for reprojection from UTM to Lambert Conformal Conic (LCC). When using this data, please cite as: Hermosilla, T., M.A. Wulder, J.C. White, N.C. Coops, G.W. Hobart, L.B. Campbell, (2016). Mass data processing of time series Landsat imagery: pixels to data products for forest monitoring. International Journal of Digital Earth. 9(11), 1035-1054. ( Hermosilla et al. 2016). Hermosilla, T., M.A. Wulder, J.C. White, N.C. Coops, G.W. Hobart, (2017). Updating Landsat time series of surface-reflectance composites and forest change products with new observations. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 63,104-111.. ( Hermosilla et al. 2017). Landsat Composite Image 2015 (GeoTif, 29 GB),
Landcover 2015 High-resolution forest land cover for Canada (2015). The forest land cover data included in this product is the entire forested ecosystem and represents the a wall to wall land cover characterization for 2015. This product was generated using both annual gap free composite reflectance images and annual forest change maps following the Virtual Land Cover Engine (VLCE) process (see Hermosilla et al. 2018), over the 650 million ha within the forested ecosystems of Canada. Elements of the VLCE classification approach includes knowledge of disturbance information as well as ensuring class transitions over time are logical. Further, a Hidden Markov Model is implemented to assess individual year class likelihoods to reduce variability and possible noise in year-on-year class assignments (for instances when class likelihoods are similar). For an overview on the data, image processing, and time series change detection methods applied, as well as information on independent accuracy assessment of the data, see (Hermosilla et al. 2016). A detailed description of the VLCE process and the subsequently generated land cover product, including an accuracy assessment, please see (Hermosilla et al. 2018). When using this data, please cite as: White, J.C., M.A. Wulder, T. Hermosilla, N.C. Coops, and G.W. Hobart. (2017). A nationwide annual characterization of 25 years of forest disturbance and recovery for Canada using Landsat time series. Remote Sensing of Environment. 192: 303-321. ( White et al. 2017). Hermosilla, T., M.A. Wulder, J.C. White, N.C. Coops, G. W. Hobart, L.B. Campbell, (2016). Mass data processing of time series Landsat imagery: pixels to data products for forest monitoring. International Journal of Digital Earth. 9(11), 1035-1054. ( Hermosilla et al. 2016). Hermosilla, T., M.A. Wulder, J.C. White, N.C. Coops, G. W. Hobart, (2017). Updating Landsat time series of surface-reflectance composites and forest change products with new observations. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 63,104-111.. ( Hermosilla et al. 2017). Hermosilla, T., M.A. Wulder, J.C. White, N.C. Coops, G. W. Hobart, (2018). Disturbance-Informed Annual Land Cover Classification Maps of Canada's Forested Ecosystems for a 29-Year Landsat Time Series. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing. 44(1) 67-87. ( Hermosilla et al. 2018). Forest Land Cover 2015 (GeoTif, 1.7 GB),
Wetlands 2000-2016 High-resolution binary wetland map for Canada (2000-2016). Wetland map for the forested ecosystems of Canada focused on current conditions.The binary wetland data included in this product is national in scope (entirety of forested ecosystem) and represents the wall to wall characterization for 2000-2016 (see Wulder et al. 2018). This product was generated using both annual gap free composite reflectance images and annual forest change maps following the Virtual Land Cover Engine (VLCE) process (see Hermosilla et al. 2018), over the 650 million ha forested ecosystems of Canada. Elements of the VLCE classification approach are inclusion of disturbance information in the processes as well as ensuring class transitions over time are logical. Further, a Hidden Markov Model is implemented to assess individual year class likelihoods to reduce variability and possible noise in year-on-year class assignments (for instances when class likelihoods are similar). For this product, to be considered as currently a wetland a pixel must have been classified as wetland at least 80% or 13 of the 16 years between 2000 and 2016, inclusively. For an overview on the data, image processing, and time series change detection methods applied, see Wulder et al. (2018). Wulder, M.A., Z. Li, E. Campbell, J.C. White, G.W. Hobart, T. Hermosilla, and N.C. Coops (2018). A National Assessment of Wetland Status and Trends for Canada’s Forested Ecosystems Using 33 Years of Earth Observation Satellite Data. Remote Sensing. 10: 1263-1282( Wulder et al. 2018). For a detailed description of the VLCE process and the subsequently generated land cover product, including an accuracy assessment, please see Hermosilla, T., M.A. Wulder, J.C. White, N.C. Coops, G.W. Hobart, (2018). Disturbance-Informed Annual Land Cover Classification Maps of Canada's Forested Ecosystems for a 29-Year Landsat Time Series. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing. 44(1), 67-87 ( Hermosilla et al. 2018). Wetlands 2000-2016 2015 (GeoTif, 607 MB),
Wetlands 84-16 High-resolution wetland year count for Canada (1984-2016). Count of number of years a pixel is classified as wetland. The wetland year count data included in this product is national in scope (entire forested ecosystem) and represents a wall to wall wetland characterization for 1984-2016 (Wulder et al. 2018). This product was generated using both annual gap free composite reflectance images and annual forest change maps following the Virtual Land Cover Engine (VLCE) process (see Hermosilla et al. 2018), over the 650 million ha forested ecosystems of Canada. Elements of the VLCE classification approach are inclusion of disturbance information in the processes as well as ensuring class transitions over time are logical. Further, a Hidden Markov Model is implemented to assess individual year class likelihoods to reduce variability and possible noise in year-on-year class assignments (for instances when class likelihoods are similar). The values can range from 0 to 33 denoting the number of years between 1984 and 2016 that a pixel was classified as wetland or wetland-treed in the VLCE data cube. For an overview on the data, image processing, and time series change detection methods applied, as well as information on independent accuracy assessment of the data, see Hermosilla et al. Hermosilla, T., M.A. Wulder, J.C.,White, N.C.,Coops, G. W.,Hobart, L.B.,Campbell, (2016). Mass data processing of time series Landsat imagery: pixels to data products for forest monitoring. International Journal of Digital Earth. 9(11), 1035-1054. ( Hermosilla et al. 2016). A detailed description of the VLCE process and the subsequently generated land cover product, including an accuracy assessment, please see Hermosilla, T., M.A. Wulder, J.C. White, N.C. Coops, G.W. Hobart, (2018). Disturbance-Informed Annual Land Cover Classification Maps of Canada's Forested Ecosystems for a 29-Year Landsat Time Series. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing. 44. ( Hermosilla et al. 2018). The focused wetland analyses can be found described in A National Assessment of Wetland Status and Trends for Canada’s Forested Ecosystems Using 33 Years of Earth Observation Satellite Data. (2018) Wulder, M.A., Z Li, E.M. Campbell, J.C. White, G.W. Hobart, T. Hermosilla and N.C. Coops.,Remote Sensing, 10, 1263-1282, Wulder et al. 2018) Wetlands Yearly Sum 1984-2016 (GeoTif, 1.7 GB),
Forest Elevation(Ht) Mean 2015 Mean height of lidar first returns (m). Represents the mean canopy height. Products relating the structure of Canada's forested ecosystems have been generated and made openly accessible. The shared products are based upon peer-reviewed science and relate aspects of forest structure including: (i) metrics calculated directly from the lidar point cloud with heights normalized to heights above the ground surface (e.g., canopy cover, height), and (ii) modelled inventory attributes, derived using an area-based approach generated by using co-located ground plot and ALS data (e.g., volume, biomass). Forest structure estimates were generated by combining information from “lidar plots” (Wulder et al. 2012) with Landsat pixel-based composites (White et al. 2014; Hermosilla et al. 2016) using a nearest neighbour imputation approach with a Random Forests-based distance metric. These products were generated for strategic-level forest monitoring information needs and are not intended to support operational-level forest management. All products have a spatial resolution of 30 m. For a detailed description of the data, methods applied, and accuracy assessment results see Matasci et al. (2018). When using this data, please cite as follows: Matasci, G., Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., Bolton, D.K., Tompalski, P., Bater, C.W., 2018b. Three decades of forest structural dynamics over Canada's forested ecosystems using Landsat time-series and lidar plots. Remote Sensing of Environment 216, 697-714. Matasci et al. 2018) Wulder et al. 2018) Forest Elevation Mean (GeoTif, 9.7 GB),
Forest Basal Area 2015 Cross-sectional area of tree stems at breast height. The sum of the cross-sectional area (i.e. basal area) of each tree in square metres in a plot, divided by the area of the plot (ha) (units = m2ha). Products relating the structure of Canada's forested ecosystems have been generated and made openly accessible. The shared products are based upon peer-reviewed science and relate aspects of forest structure including: (i) metrics calculated directly from the lidar point cloud with heights normalized to heights above the ground surface (e.g., canopy cover, height), and (ii) modelled inventory attributes, derived using an area-based approach generated by using co-located ground plot and ALS data (e.g., volume, biomass). Forest structure estimates were generated by combining information from “lidar plots” (Wulder et al. 2012) with Landsat pixel-based composites (White et al. 2014; Hermosilla et al. 2016) using a nearest neighbour imputation approach with a Random Forests-based distance metric. These products were generated for strategic-level forest monitoring information needs and are not intended to support operational-level forest management. All products have a spatial resolution of 30 m. For a detailed description of the data, methods applied, and accuracy assessment results see Matasci et al. (2018). When using this data, please cite as follows: Matasci, G., Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., Bolton, D.K., Tompalski, P., Bater, C.W., 2018b. Three decades of forest structural dynamics over Canada's forested ecosystems using Landsat time-series and lidar plots. Remote Sensing of Environment 216, 697-714. Matasci et al. 2018) Forest Basal Area (GeoTif, 9.3 GB),
Forest Elevation(Ht) Covariance 2015 Coefficient of variation of first returns height (%). Represents the variability in canopy heights relative to the mean canopy height. Products relating the structure of Canada's forested ecosystems have been generated and made openly accessible. The shared products are based upon peer-reviewed science and relate aspects of forest structure including: (i) metrics calculated directly from the lidar point cloud with heights normalized to heights above the ground surface (e.g., canopy cover, height), and (ii) modelled inventory attributes, derived using an area-based approach generated by using co-located ground plot and ALS data (e.g., volume, biomass). Forest structure estimates were generated by combining information from “lidar plots” (Wulder et al. 2012) with Landsat pixel-based composites (White et al. 2014; Hermosilla et al. 2016) using a nearest neighbour imputation approach with a Random Forests-based distance metric. These products were generated for strategic-level forest monitoring information needs and are not intended to support operational-level forest management. All products have a spatial resolution of 30 m. For a detailed description of the data, methods applied, and accuracy assessment results see Matasci et al. (2018). When using this data, please cite as follows: Matasci, G., Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., Bolton, D.K., Tompalski, P., Bater, C.W., 2018b. Three decades of forest structural dynamics over Canada's forested ecosystems using Landsat time-series and lidar plots. Remote Sensing of Environment 216, 697-714. Matasci et al. 2018) Forest Elevation Covariance (GeoTif, 8.1 GB),
Forest Elevation(Ht) Stddev 2015 Standard deviation of height of lidar first returns (m). Represents the variability in canopy heights. Products relating the structure of Canada's forested ecosystems have been generated and made openly accessible. The shared products are based upon peer-reviewed science and relate aspects of forest structure including: (i) metrics calculated directly from the lidar point cloud with heights normalized to heights above the ground surface (e.g., canopy cover, height), and (ii) modelled inventory attributes, derived using an area-based approach generated by using co-located ground plot and ALS data (e.g., volume, biomass). Forest structure estimates were generated by combining information from “lidar plots” (Wulder et al. 2012) with Landsat pixel-based composites (White et al. 2014; Hermosilla et al. 2016) using a nearest neighbour imputation approach with a Random Forests-based distance metric. These products were generated for strategic-level forest monitoring information needs and are not intended to support operational-level forest management. All products have a spatial resolution of 30 m. For a detailed description of the data, methods applied, and accuracy assessment results see Matasci et al. (2018). When using this data, please cite as follows: Matasci, G., Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., Bolton, D.K., Tompalski, P., Bater, C.W., 2018b. Three decades of forest structural dynamics over Canada's forested ecosystems using Landsat time-series and lidar plots. Remote Sensing of Environment 216, 697-714. Matasci et al. 2018) Forest Elevation Stddev (GeoTif, 9.5 GB),
Forest Gross Stem Volume 2015 Gross stem volume. Individual tree gross volumes are calculated using species-specific allometric equations. In the measured ground plots, gross total volume per hectare is calculated by summing the gross total volume of all trees and dividing by the area of the plot (units = m3ha-1). Products relating the structure of Canada's forested ecosystems have been generated and made openly accessible. The shared products are based upon peer-reviewed science and relate aspects of forest structure including: (i) metrics calculated directly from the lidar point cloud with heights normalized to heights above the ground surface (e.g., canopy cover, height), and (ii) modelled inventory attributes, derived using an area-based approach generated by using co-located ground plot and ALS data (e.g., volume, biomass). Forest structure estimates were generated by combining information from “lidar plots” (Wulder et al. 2012) with Landsat pixel-based composites (White et al. 2014; Hermosilla et al. 2016) using a nearest neighbour imputation approach with a Random Forests-based distance metric. These products were generated for strategic-level forest monitoring information needs and are not intended to support operational-level forest management. All products have a spatial resolution of 30 m. For a detailed description of the data, methods applied, and accuracy assessment results see Matasci et al. (2018). When using this data, please cite as follows: Matasci, G., Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., Bolton, D.K., Tompalski, P., Bater, C.W., 2018b. Three decades of forest structural dynamics over Canada's forested ecosystems using Landsat time-series and lidar plots. Remote Sensing of Environment 216, 697-714. Matasci et al. 2018) Forest Gross Stem Volume (GeoTif, 9.1 GB),
Forest Lorey's Height 2015 Lorey's mean height. Average height of trees weighted by their basal area (m). Products relating the structure of Canada's forested ecosystems have been generated and made openly accessible. The shared products are based upon peer-reviewed science and relate aspects of forest structure including: (i) metrics calculated directly from the lidar point cloud with heights normalized to heights above the ground surface (e.g., canopy cover, height), and (ii) modelled inventory attributes, derived using an area-based approach generated by using co-located ground plot and ALS data (e.g., volume, biomass). Forest structure estimates were generated by combining information from “lidar plots” (Wulder et al. 2012) with Landsat pixel-based composites (White et al. 2014; Hermosilla et al. 2016) using a nearest neighbour imputation approach with a Random Forests-based distance metric. These products were generated for strategic-level forest monitoring information needs and are not intended to support operational-level forest management. All products have a spatial resolution of 30 m. For a detailed description of the data, methods applied, and accuracy assessment results see Matasci et al. (2018). When using this data, please cite as follows: Matasci, G., Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., Bolton, D.K., Tompalski, P., Bater, C.W., 2018b. Three decades of forest structural dynamics over Canada's forested ecosystems using Landsat time-series and lidar plots. Remote Sensing of Environment 216, 697-714. Matasci et al. 2018) Forest Lorey's Height (GeoTif, 9.6 GB),
Forest Percentage Above 2m 2015 Percentage of first returns above 2m (%). Represents canopy cover. Products relating the structure of Canada's forested ecosystems have been generated and made openly accessible. The shared products are based upon peer-reviewed science and relate aspects of forest structure including: (i) metrics calculated directly from the lidar point cloud with heights normalized to heights above the ground surface (e.g., canopy cover, height), and (ii) modelled inventory attributes, derived using an area-based approach generated by using co-located ground plot and ALS data (e.g., volume, biomass). Forest structure estimates were generated by combining information from “lidar plots” (Wulder et al. 2012) with Landsat pixel-based composites (White et al. 2014; Hermosilla et al. 2016) using a nearest neighbour imputation approach with a Random Forests-based distance metric. These products were generated for strategic-level forest monitoring information needs and are not intended to support operational-level forest management. All products have a spatial resolution of 30 m. For a detailed description of the data, methods applied, and accuracy assessment results see Matasci et al. (2018). When using this data, please cite as follows: Matasci, G., Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., Bolton, D.K., Tompalski, P., Bater, C.W., 2018b. Three decades of forest structural dynamics over Canada's forested ecosystems using Landsat time-series and lidar plots. Remote Sensing of Environment 216, 697-714. Matasci et al. 2018) Forest Pecentage Above 2m (GeoTif, 4.3 GB),
Forest Percent Above Mean 2015 Percentage of first returns above the mean height (%). Represents the canopy cover above mean canopy height. Products relating the structure of Canada's forested ecosystems have been generated and made openly accessible. The shared products are based upon peer-reviewed science and relate aspects of forest structure including: (i) metrics calculated directly from the lidar point cloud with heights normalized to heights above the ground surface (e.g., canopy cover, height), and (ii) modelled inventory attributes, derived using an area-based approach generated by using co-located ground plot and ALS data (e.g., volume, biomass). Forest structure estimates were generated by combining information from “lidar plots” (Wulder et al. 2012) with Landsat pixel-based composites (White et al. 2014; Hermosilla et al. 2016) using a nearest neighbour imputation approach with a Random Forests-based distance metric. These products were generated for strategic-level forest monitoring information needs and are not intended to support operational-level forest management. All products have a spatial resolution of 30 m. For a detailed description of the data, methods applied, and accuracy assessment results see Matasci et al. (2018). When using this data, please cite as follows: Matasci, G., Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., Bolton, D.K., Tompalski, P., Bater, C.W., 2018b. Three decades of forest structural dynamics over Canada's forested ecosystems using Landsat time-series and lidar plots. Remote Sensing of Environment 216, 697-714. Matasci et al. 2018) Forest Percent Above Mean (GeoTif, 4.0 GB),
Forest Total Aboveground Biomass 2015 Total aboveground biomass. Individual tree total aboveground biomass is calculated using species-specific equations. In the measured ground plots, aboveground biomass per hectare is calculated by summing the values of all trees within a plot and dividing by the area of the plot. Aboveground biomass may be separated into various biomass components (e.g. stem, bark, branches, foliage) (units = t/ha). Products relating the structure of Canada's forested ecosystems have been generated and made openly accessible. The shared products are based upon peer-reviewed science and relate aspects of forest structure including: (i) metrics calculated directly from the lidar point cloud with heights normalized to heights above the ground surface (e.g., canopy cover, height), and (ii) modelled inventory attributes, derived using an area-based approach generated by using co-located ground plot and ALS data (e.g., volume, biomass). Forest structure estimates were generated by combining information from “lidar plots” (Wulder et al. 2012) with Landsat pixel-based composites (White et al. 2014; Hermosilla et al. 2016) using a nearest neighbour imputation approach with a Random Forests-based distance metric. These products were generated for strategic-level forest monitoring information needs and are not intended to support operational-level forest management. All products have a spatial resolution of 30 m. For a detailed description of the data, methods applied, and accuracy assessment results see Matasci et al. (2018). When using this data, please cite as follows: Matasci, G., Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., Bolton, D.K., Tompalski, P., Bater, C.W., 2018b. Three decades of forest structural dynamics over Canada's forested ecosystems using Landsat time-series and lidar plots. Remote Sensing of Environment 216, 697-714. Matasci et al. 2018) Forest Total Aboveground Biomass (GeoTif, 9.7 GB),
Forest 95th Percentile Elevation(Ht) 2015 95th percentile of first returns height (m). Products relating the structure of Canada's forested ecosystems have been generated and made openly accessible. The shared products are based upon peer-reviewed science and relate aspects of forest structure including: (i) metrics calculated directly from the lidar point cloud with heights normalized to heights above the ground surface (e.g., canopy cover, height), and (ii) modelled inventory attributes, derived using an area-based approach generated by using co-located ground plot and ALS data (e.g., volume, biomass). Forest structure estimates were generated by combining information from “lidar plots” (Wulder et al. 2012) with Landsat pixel-based composites (White et al. 2014; Hermosilla et al. 2016) using a nearest neighbour imputation approach with a Random Forests-based distance metric. These products were generated for strategic-level forest monitoring information needs and are not intended to support operational-level forest management. All products have a spatial resolution of 30 m. For a detailed description of the data, methods applied, and accuracy assessment results see Matasci et al. (2018). When using this data, please cite as follows: Matasci, G., Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., Bolton, D.K., Tompalski, P., Bater, C.W., 2018b. Three decades of forest structural dynamics over Canada's forested ecosystems using Landsat time-series and lidar plots. Remote Sensing of Environment 216, 697-714. Matasci et al. 2018) Forest 95th Percentile Elevation (GeoTif, 1.7GB),
Change 85-11 Forest Change and No-change bitmap for Canada. The forest change data included in this product is national in scope (entire forested ecosystem) and represents the first wall-to-wall characterization of wildfire and harvest in Canada at a spatial resolution commensurate with human impacts. The information outcomes represent 25 years of stand replacing change in Canada's forests, derived from a single, consistent spatially-explicit data source, derived in a fully automated manner. This demonstrated capacity to characterize forests at a resolution that captures human impacts is key to establishing a baseline for detailed monitoring of forested ecosystems from management and science perspectives. Time series of Landsat data were used to characterize national trends in stand replacing forest disturbances caused by wildfire and harvest for the period 1985-2011 for Canada's 650 million hectare forested ecosystems (White et al. 2017). Landsat data has a 30m spatial resolution, so the change information is highly detailed and is commensurate with that of human impacts. These data represent annual stand replacing forest changes. The stand replacing disturbances types labeled are wildfire and harvest, with lower confidence wildfire and harvest, also shared. The distinction and sharing of lower class membership likelihoods is to indicate to users that some change events were more difficult to allocate to a change type, but are generally found to be in the correct category. For an overview on the data, image processing, and time series change detection methods applied, as well as information on independent accuracy assessment of the data, see Hermosilla et al. (2016). When using this data, please cite as: White, J.C., M.A. Wulder, T. Hermosilla, N.C. Coops, and G.W. Hobart. (2017). A nationwide annual characterization of 25 years of forest disturbance and recovery for Canada using Landsat time series. Remote Sensing of Environment. 192: 303-321. (White et al. 2017). Hermosilla, T., M.A. Wulder, J.C. White, N.C. Coops, G.W. Hobart, L.B. Campbell, (2016). Mass data processing of time series Landsat imagery: pixels to data products for forest monitoring. International Journal of Digital Earth. 9(11), 1035-1054. ( Hermosilla et al. 2016). Binary change/no-Change 1985-2011 (GeoTif, 227 MB),
Change Type 85-11 Forest Change Type (Wildfire, Harvest, Low Confidence Wildfire, Low Confidence Harvest). The forest change data included in this product is national in scope (entire forested ecosystem) and represents the first wall-to-wall characterization of wildfire and harvest in Canada at a spatial resolution commensurate with human impacts. The information outcomes represent 25 years of stand replacing change in Canada's forests, derived from a single, consistent spatially-explicit data source, derived in a fully automated manner. This demonstrated capacity to characterize forests at a resolution that captures human impacts is key to establishing a baseline for detailed monitoring of forested ecosystems from management and science perspectives. Time series of Landsat data were used to characterize national trends in stand replacing forest disturbances caused by wildfire and harvest for the period 1985-2011 for Canada's 650 million hectare forested ecosystems (White et al. 2017). Landsat data has a 30m spatial resolution, so the change information is highly detailed and is commensurate with that of human impacts. These data represent annual stand replacing forest changes. The stand replacing disturbances types labeled are wildfire and harvest, with lower confidence wildfire and harvest, also shared. The distinction and sharing of lower class membership likelihoods is to indicate to users that some change events were more difficult to allocate to a change type, but are generally found to be in the correct category. For an overview on the data, image processing, and time series change detection methods applied, as well as information on independent accuracy assessment of the data, see Hermosilla et al. (2016). When using this data, please cite as: White, J.C., M.A. Wulder, T. Hermosilla, N.C. Coops, and G.W. Hobart. (2017). A nationwide annual characterization of 25 years of forest disturbance and recovery for Canada using Landsat time series. Remote Sensing of Environment. 192: 303-321.(White et al. 2017). Hermosilla, T., M.A. Wulder, J.C. White, N.C. Coops, G.W. Hobart, L.B. Campbell, (2016). Mass data processing of time series Landsat imagery: pixels to data products for forest monitoring. International Journal of Digital Earth. 9(11), 1035-1054. ( Hermosilla et al. 2016). Change type 1985-2011 (GeoTif, 249 MB),
Change Year 85-11 Forest Change Year 1985-2011. The forest change data included in this product is national in scope (entire forested ecosystem) and represents the first wall-to-wall characterization of wildfire and harvest in Canada at a spatial resolution commensurate with human impacts. The information outcomes represent 25 years of stand replacing change in Canada's forests, derived from a single, consistent spatially-explicit data source, derived in a fully automated manner. This demonstrated capacity to characterize forests at a resolution that captures human impacts is key to establishing a baseline for detailed monitoring of forested ecosystems from management and science perspectives. Time series of Landsat data were used to characterize national trends in stand replacing forest disturbances caused by wildfire and harvest for the period 1985-2011 for Canada's 650 million hectare forested ecosystems (White et al. 2017). Landsat data has a 30m spatial resolution, so the change information is highly detailed and is commensurate with that of human impacts. These data represent annual stand replacing forest changes. The stand replacing disturbances types labeled are wildfire and harvest, with lower confidence wildfire and harvest, also shared. The distinction and sharing of lower class membership likelihoods is to indicate to users that some change events were more difficult to allocate to a change type, but are generally found to be in the correct category. For an overview on the data, image processing, and time series change detection methods applied, as well as information on independent accuracy assessment of the data, see Hermosilla et al. (2016). When using this data, please cite as: White, J.C., M.A. Wulder, T. Hermosilla, N.C. Coops, and G.W. Hobart. (2017). A nationwide annual characterization of 25 years of forest disturbance and recovery for Canada using Landsat time series. Remote Sensing of Environment. 192, 303-321.(White et al. 2017). Hermosilla, T., M.A. Wulder, J.C. White, N.C. Coops, G.W. Hobart, L.B. Campbell, (2016). Mass data processing of time series Landsat imagery: pixels to data products for forest monitoring. International Journal of Digital Earth. 9(11), 1035-1054. ( Hermosilla et al. 2016). Change year 1985-2011 (GeoTif, 280 MB),
Change 12-15 Forest Change and Nochange bit map for Canada. The Forest Change/No-change data described here is an update to previously posted open data. The date range for this data is 2012 to 2015. The forest change data included in this product is national in scope (entire forested ecosystem) and represents the first wall-to-wall characterization of wildfire and harvest in Canada at a spatial resolution commensurate with human impacts. The information outcomes represent 4 years of stand replacing change in Canada’s forests, derived from a single, consistent spatially-explicit data source, derived in a fully automated manner. Hermosilla et al. (2016) This demonstrated capacity to characterize forests at a resolution that captures human impacts is key to establishing a baseline for detailed monitoring of forested ecosystems from management and science perspectives. Time series of Landsat data were used to characterize national trends in stand replacing forest disturbances caused by wildfire and harvest for the period 21012–2015 for Canada's 650 million hectare forested ecosystems (White et al, 2017). Landsat data has a 30m spatial resolution, so the change information is highly detailed and is commensurate with that of human impacts. These data represent annual stand replacing forest changes. The stand replacing disturbances types labeled are wildfire and harvest, with lower confidence wildfire and harvest, also shared. The distinction and sharing of lower class membership likelihoods is to indicate to users that some change events were more difficult to allocate to a change type, but are generally found to be in the correct category. For an overview on the data, image processing, and time series change detection methods applied, as well as information on independent accuracy assessment of the data. When using this data, please cite as: White, J.C., M.A. Wulder, T. Hermosilla, N.C. Coops, and G.W. Hobart. (2017). A nationwide annual characterization of 25 years of forest disturbance and recovery for Canada using Landsat time series. Remote Sensing of Environment. 192: 303-321.(White et al. 2017).Hermosilla, T., M.A. Wulder, J.C. White, N.C. Coops, G.W. Hobart, L.B. Campbell, (2016). Mass data processing of time series Landsat imagery: pixels to data products for forest monitoring. International Journal of Digital Earth. 9(11), 1035-1054. ( Hermosilla et al. 2016). Hermosilla, T., M.A. Wulder, J.C. White, N.C. Coops, G.W. Hobart, (2017). Updating Landsat time series of surface-reflectance composites and forest change products with new observations. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 63,104-111. ( Hermosilla et al. 2017). Binary change/no-Change 2012-2015 (GeoTif, 82 MB),
Change Type 12-15 Forest Change Type (Wildfire, Harvest, Low Confidence Wildfire, Low Confidence Harvest).The Forest Change Type data described here is an update to previously posted open data. The date range for this data is 2012 to 2015. The forest change data included in this product is national in scope (entire forested ecosystem) and represents the first wall-to-wall characterization of wildfire and harvest in Canada at a spatial resolution commensurate with human impacts. The information outcomes represent 25 years of stand replacing change in Canada’s forests, derived from a single, consistent spatially-explicit data source, derived in a fully automated manner. This demonstrated capacity to characterize forests at a resolution that captures human impacts is key to establishing a baseline for detailed monitoring of forested ecosystems from management and science perspectives. Time series of Landsat data were used to characterize national trends in stand replacing forest disturbances caused by wildfire and harvest for the period 1985–2010 for Canada's 650 million hectare forested ecosystems (Hermosilla et al. 2017). Landsat data has a 30m spatial resolution, so the change information is highly detailed and is commensurate with that of human impacts. These data represent annual stand replacing forest changes. The stand replacing disturbances types labeled are wildfire and harvest, with lower confidence wildfire and harvest, also shared. The distinction and sharing of lower class membership likelihoods is to indicate to users that some change events were more difficult to allocate to a change type, but are generally found to be in the correct category. For an overview on the data, image processing, and time series change detection methods applied, as well as information on independent accuracy assessment of the data. When using this data, please cite as: White, J.C., M.A. Wulder, T. Hermosilla, N.C. Coops, and G.W. Hobart. (2017). A nationwide annual characterization of 25 years of forest disturbance and recovery for Canada using Landsat time series. Remote Sensing of Environment. 192: 303-321.(White et al. 2017). Hermosilla, T., M.A. Wulder, J.C. White, N.C. Coops, G.W. Hobart, L.B. Campbell, (2016). Mass data processing of time series Landsat imagery: pixels to data products for forest monitoring. International Journal of Digital Earth. 9(11), 1035-1054. ( Hermosilla et al. 2016). Hermosilla, T., M.A. Wulder, J.C. White, N.C. Coops, G.W. Hobart, (2017). Updating Landsat time series of surface-reflectance composites and forest change products with new observations. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 63,104-111. ( Hermosilla et al. 2017). Change type 2012-2015 (GeoTif, 90 MB),
Change Year 12-15 The Forest Change Year data described here is an update to previously posted open data. The date range for this data is 2012 to 2015. The forest change data included in this product is national in scope (entire forested ecosystem) and represents the first wall-to-wall characterization of wildfire and harvest in Canada at a spatial resolution commensurate with human impacts. The information outcomes represent 4 years of stand replacing change in Canada’s forests, derived from a single, consistent spatially-explicit data source, derived in a fully automated manner. This demonstrated capacity to characterize forests at a resolution that captures human impacts is key to establishing a baseline for detailed monitoring of forested ecosystems from management and science perspectives. Time series of Landsat data were used to characterize national trends in stand replacing forest disturbances caused by wildfire and harvest for the period 2012-2015 for Canada's 650 million hectare forested ecosystems (Hermosilla et al. 2017). Landsat data has a 30m spatial resolution, so the change information is highly detailed and is commensurate with that of human impacts. These data represent annual stand replacing forest changes. The stand replacing disturbances types labeled are wildfire and harvest, with lower confidence wildfire and harvest, also shared. The distinction and sharing of lower class membership likelihoods is to indicate to users that some change events were more difficult to allocate to a change type, but are generally found to be in the correct category. For an overview on the data, image processing, and time series change detection methods applied, as well as information on independent accuracy assessment of the data. When using this data, please cite as: White, J.C., M.A. Wulder, T. Hermosilla, N.C. Coops, and G. Hobart. (2017). ( White et al. 2017). Hermosilla, T., M.A. Wulder, J.C. White, N.C. Coops, G.W. Hobart, L.B. Campbell, (2016). Mass data processing of time series Landsat imagery: pixels to data products for forest monitoring. International Journal of Digital Earth. 9(11), 1035-1054. ( Hermosilla et al. 2016). Hermosilla, T., M.A. Wulder, J.C. White, N.C. Coops, G.W. Hobart, (2017). Updating Landsat time series of surface-reflectance composites and forest change products with new observations. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 63,104-111.. ( Hermosilla et al. 2017). Change year 2012-2015 (GeoTif, 92 MB),
Dynamic Habitat Index 2000-2006 Dynamic Habitat Index. (2000-2005) Satellite derived estimates of photosynthetically active radiation can be obtained from satellites such as MODIS. Knowledge of the land cover allows for calculation the fraction of incoming solar radiation that is absorbed by vegetation. This fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) absorbed by vegetation describes rate at which carbon dioxide and energy from sunlight are assimilated into carbohydrates during photosynthesis of plant tissues. The summation of carbon assimilated by the vegetation canopy over time yields the landscape's gross primary productivity. Daily MODIS imagery is the basis for periodic composites and monthly data products. Over the 6 year period from 2000-2005, we calculate the annual average cumulative total of 72 monthly fPAR measurements, to describe the integrated annual vegetative production of the landscape, the integrated average annual minimum monthly fPAR measurement, which describes the annual minimum green cover of the observed landscape, and the integrated average of the annual covariance of fPAR, which describes the seasonality of the observed landscape. We also share the combination of the annual integrated values for visualization and analysis as the Dynamic Habitat Index (with additional information in Coops et al. 2008). When using this data, please cite as: Coops, N.C., Wulder, M.A., Duro, D.C., Han, T. and Berry, S., 2008. The development of a Canadian dynamic habitat index using multi-temporal satellite estimates of canopy light absorbance. Ecological Indicators, 8(5), pp.754-766. ( Coops et al. 2008). Dynamic Habitat Index 2000-2006 (GeoTif, 138 MB),
Canadian Ecological Domain Classification Canadian Ecological Domain Classification from Satellite Data. Satellite derived data including 1) topography, 2) landscape productivity based on photosynthetic activity, and 3) land cover were used as inputs to create an environmental regionalization of the over 10 million km2 of Canada’s terrestrial land base. The outcomes of this clustering consists of three main outputs. An initial clustering of 100 classes was generated using a two-stage multivariate classification process. Next, an agglomerative hierarchy using a log-likelihood distance measure was applied to create a 40 and then a 14 class regionalization, aimed to meaningfully group ecologically similar components of Canada's terrestrial landscape. For more information (including a graphical illustration of the cluster hierarchy) and to cite this data please use: Coops, N.C., Wulder, M.A., Iwanicka, D. 2009. An environmental domain classification of Canada using earth observation data for biodiversity assessment. Ecological Informatics, Vol. 4, No. 1, Pp. 8-22, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2008.09.005. ( Coops et al. 2009). Canadian Ecosystem Regionalization (GeoTif, 42 MB),
BC Tree Species Map/Likelihoods 2015 Dominant Species Map 2015
The data represent dominant tree species for British Columbia forests in 2015, are based upon Landsat data and modeling, with results mapped at 30 m spatial resolution. The map was generated with the Random Forests classifier that used predictor variables derived from Landsat time series including surface reflectance, land cover, forest disturbance, and forest structure, and ancillary variables describing the topography and position. Training and validation samples were derived from the Vegetation Resources Inventory (VRI), from a pool of polygons with homogeneous internal conditions and with low discrepancies with the remotely sensed predictions. Local models were applied over 100x100 km tiles that considered training samples from the 5x5 neighbouring tiles to avoid edge effects. An overall accuracy of 72% was found for the species which occupy 80% of the forested areas. Satellite data and modeling have demonstrated the capacity for up-to-date, wall-to-wall, forest attribute maps at sub-stand level for British Columbia, Canada.
BC Species Likelihood 2015
The tree species class membership likelihood distribution data included in this product focused on the province of British Columbia, based upon Landsat data and modeling, with results mapped at 30 m spatial resolution. The data represent tree species class membership likelihood in 2015. The map was generated with the Random Forests classifier that used predictor variables derived from Landsat time series including surface reflectance, land cover, forest disturbance, and forest structure, and ancillary variables describing the topography and position. Training and validation samples were derived from the Vegetation Resources Inventory (VRI) selecting from a stratified pool of polygons with homogeneous internal conditions and with low discrepancies when related to remotely sensed information. Local models were applied over 100x100 km tiles that, to avoid edge effects, considered training samples from the 5x5 neighbouring tiles. An overall accuracy of 72% was found for the species which occupy 80% of the forested areas. As an element of the mapping process, we also obtain the votes received for each class by the Random Forest models. The votes can be understood as analogous to class membership likelihoods, providing enriched information on land cover class uncertainty for use in modeling. Tree species class membership likelihoods lower than 5% have been masked and converted to zero.
When using this data, please cite as: Shang, C., Coops, N.C., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Hermosilla, T., 2020. Update and spatial extension of strategic forest inventories using time series remote sensing and modeling. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 84, 101956. DOI: 10.1016/j.jag.2019.101956 ( Shang et al. 2020).
BC Tree Species Map/Likelyhoods 2015 (GeoTif, 1.5 GB),